Full Description

Apart from meteorology, the department is also concerned with Agrometeorology, Hydrology, Astronomy and Astrophysics (including solar physics), Seismology, Geomagnetism, Atmospheric Electricity and studies of the Ionosphere and Cosmic Rays. Pakistan Meteorological Department shoulders the responsibility to investigate the factors responsible for global warming, climate change its impact assessment and adaptation stretegies in various sectors of human activities.


Major functions entrusted to the Pakistan Meteorological Department are as under:

To provide information on meteorological and geophysical matters with the objective of traffic safety in air, on land and sea, mitigation of disasters due to weather and geophysical phenomena, agriculture development based on climatic potential of the country, prediction and modification of weather forecast.

(Detail at Annexure-I)

In pursuance of its objectives the department has established:

a) A network of observing stations to generate meteorological, geophysical and phenological data.

b) A telecommunication system for speedy dissemination of data.

c) Meteorological offices to analyse data for issuing forecasts and warnings for aviation, agriculture, shipping, sports, irrigation etc.

d) Climatological and data processing units for scrutinizing, comparing and publishing data for appraisal of long term weather trends and earthquakes.

Existing network of met observatories is given at Annexture-II.


The Pakistan Meteorological Department, at the time of its establishment in 1947, inherited only 15 Meteorological Observatories from the Central Meteorological Organization then operating in the Subcontinent. The Department with its continuous efforts has improved weather forecasting capabilities by expanding the network of meteorological observatories, developing methods of observation, improving telecommunication facilities and forecasting techniques.

The major achievements of the Department are introduction of modern flood forecasting system, earthquake and nuclear explosion detection system, radar, satellite, computer technology, flight safety consultancy services in seismic design of dams, buildings and other development and disaster relief schemes.

The Department has also played vital role in research work and its scientists have made valuable contribution. More than 300 scientific papers have been written and published in both national and international scientific journals. Major emphasis in the research has been laid on the field of artificial rain making, ground water detection, arid zone research, ozone measurements, solar energy, wind power potential, oceanographic and space research.

Many of the Research Organizations such as Arid Zone Research Institute (AZRI), Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Corporation (SUPARCO), and Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) started their functioning with the initial assistance of the Pakistan Meteorological Department. Meteorological services are extended on regular basis to Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), Federal Flood Commission (FFC), Pakistan Agriculture Research Cuncil (PARC),Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Food & Agriculture.

The Department processes the raw data and issues Meteorological forecasts and warnings used by various user agencies details of which are given in Annexure-III. 

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